Nowadays Russia’s education system is based upon the Bologna principles and includes such levels of education as
- bachelor’s degree
- master’s degree
- specialist degree
- doctoral degree
- postdoctoral degree
1. Bachelor`s Degree
This is a complete higher education course. Individuals who have completed education equivalent to Russian general secondary or vocational secondary education can enroll in a Bachelor's Degree course. The course lasts 4 years and gives general fundamental training.
The certificate grants the student the right to work according to profession or to further their studies on a Master's Degree course.
2. Master`s Degree
This allows in-depth specialisation in the student’s chosen field. The course lasts at least two years and involves training students for research work.
3. Specialist Degree
Specialist Degrees are more focused on practical work in industry according to the selected discipline. The course lasts for a minimum of 5 years. Graduates of a Specialist Degree may work in industry or further their studies on a Master's or other postgraduate course.
Russia has a two-tier system of doctoral degrees:
- Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences)
- Doktor Nauk ( Doctor of Sciences)
1. Kandidat Nauk
Graduates of a Master's or Specialist Degree can enroll in a postgraduate course. Full-time study lasts at least 3 years, while part-time study lasts at least 4 years. Depending on the result of the dissertation defence, a Candidate of Sciences Degree is awarded, which is the first Degree to confirm the status of scientist. This academic degree may be matched by a Western PhD degree.
2. Doktor Nauk
After advanced research, preparation and public defense of the dissertation, the candidate is awarded the second doctoral degree The degree of Doktor Nauk may match a German Dr. phil. habil. or roughly correspond to an American Full Professor.